Smoke-free policies in most Canadian and American jurisdictions frequently distinguish between "workplaces" to which the public has no access (such as offices and factories), and "public places", which are usually classified as recreational and hospitality establishments. As the name "public places" suggests, the public has access to such places, which include workers who work in these places. Examples are restaurants, bars/pubs/taverns, casinos and other gaming establishments such as racetracks/slots.
Exceptions to the above approach include the state of California and the province of British Columbia. California workplaces, whether hospitality or otherwise, are regulated as worksites under the state's smoke-free law which began implementation in 1995. In the case of British Columbia's Workman's Compensation Board regulations, all establishments where people work (including hospitality premises) are considered worksites for the purposes of the regulations.
Based upon results from the 1994-95 Survey on Smoking in Canada, approximately seven million Canadians (60% of the workforce) were exposed to second-hand smoke in the workplace to some degree. In Ontario, approximately 2.2 million (52% of the workforce) worked in places that allowed some level of smoking. (These results are located in: Lowe GS. Workplace smoking: Trends, issues and effective strategies. Prepared for Health Canada’s Strategic Planning Workshop to Reduce ETS Exposure, Ottawa. October 19-20, 1995. University of Alberta).
Below are selected articles which examine the health of bar/restaurant workers in workplaces that allow smoking:
Exposure of hospitality workers to environmental tobacco smoke. Bates M.N., et al. Tobacco Control. February 2002; 1: 125-129.
Restaurant smoking restrictions and environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Brauer Michael and 't Mannetje Andrea. American Journal of Public Health. 1998; 88(12):1834-1836.
Bartenders' Respiratory Health After Establishment of Smoke-Free Bars and Taverns, Eisner MD, et al. Journal of the American Medical Association. December 1998; 280(22): 1909-1914.
Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure in the Home and Worksite and Health Effects in Adults. Mannino DM, et al. Tobacco Control. 1997;6(4): 296-305.
Occupational Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke, Hammond SK, et al. Journal of the American Medical Association. September 1995; 274(12): 956-960.
Involuntary Smoking in the Restaurant Workplace - A Review of Employee Exposure and Health Effects, Siegel M. Journal of the American Medical Association. July 1993; 270(4): 490-493.
Other articles are:
Lung Cancer From Passive Smoking at Work. Wells AJ. American Journal of Public Health. July 1998; 88(7): 1025-1029.
Smoking in the Workplace: Do Smoking Patterns and Attitudes Reflect the Legislative Environment? Pederson LL, et al. Tobacco Control. 1996; 5(1): 39-45.
Smoking Control in the Workplace: is Workplace Size Related to Restrictions and Programs? Ashley MJ, et al. Ontario Tobacco Research Unit. University of Toronto.